We already known that medical reason is not the only cause of swelling feet and legs but some hormonal factors and certain bad condition can also trigger it. This is the second part of Peripheral Edema article and we’ll look at some hormonal and condition causes of ankle and leg edema below. For information about the causes of thigh swelling, visit Thigh Swelling – Upper Leg Swelling.


An increase of body fluid volume, pressure on the vena cava and hormone fluctuations during pregnancy all contribute to the occurring of water retention in legs during pregnancy.

Transfusion, severe legs and feet edema

Legs and feet edema as a result of an allergic reaction to blood transfusion is a rare condition although it can happen in some cases. Some other symptoms of an allergic to blood transfusion reaction include itchiness, dizziness, fever and headache.

Smoking and feet swelling

Smoking does not cause legs or feet swelling directly. But nicotine, one of the chemicals in cigarettes, reduces the elasticity of the blood vessels thus increasing the risk of circulatory or neurological problems. When there’s a problem in the circulatory system, certain symptoms such as legs and feet swelling might occurs.

Total knee replacement surgery

Total knee replacement surgery is the most extreme type of surgery of the knee. It is usually the last resort and performed only when there’s progressive damage or serious distress. This type of surgery is found to be highly effective and can significantly relieve pain and improve joint function.

After a total knee replacement surgery, it’s normal to experience some degree of swelling in the lower legs which can last up to about 2 to 6 months.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a pattern of physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that appear before your menstrual period starts and disappear soon after bleeding begins.

Many women have normal, mild symptoms, such as cramps and mild breast tenderness, during their menstrual periods. One of PMS symptoms is bloating or water retention in the abdomen, hands, and legs. Some women with PMS gain weight because of the water retention. Others have fluid shifts to the abdomen, hands, and legs that make them feel uncomfortably swollen or puffy.

Total Hip replacement surgery (THR)

Total hip replacement surgery (THR), also referred to as a hip arthroplasty, is a medical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a synthetic implant. It is the most successful, cheapest and safest form of joint replacement surgery. Fluid retention in legs includes swelling of the ankles and feet are very normal for the first 3 to 6 months after the surgery.

Too much salt intake

Consuming too much salt will raise the blood pressure and cause leg edema particularly in person who is more sensitive to salt.


Sprain is a condition in which the ankle joint afflicted by injuries during exercises, playing certain sports or accidental. The injury often can be seen in a discoloration and ankle edema due to the accumulation of the blood and fluid in the affected area.

Bad circulation

Bad circulation or Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) is a medical condition which is somewhat similar to carotid artery disease and coronary artery disease. It occurs when fatty deposits are collected in the inner linings of the artery wall thus obstruct the blood flow. Some symptoms of this disease include cramping of the buttocks, legs or feet; burning and pain in the legs, heavy legs with itching and swelling; tired aching feet; and very low temperature in the hands, arms, legs or feet.

Taking too much of ginseng

Sometimes when one is taking too much of ginseng, a difficulty sleeping, tense muscles and overall edema include calf, leg, ankle and foot might occur.


Some of the tell-tale signs of being overweight include irregular heartbeat; panting when exercising; difficulty in walking and moving around; painful back and knees; heartburn; depression or other emotional problems; diabetes; swelling of the feet or legs; osteoarthritis in some joints; high blood pressure; coronary heart disease; and elevated cholesterol levels.

Prolong inactivity and standing or sitting in one position

Inactivity and standing or sitting in one position for prolonged periods such as during traveling can stiffen leg muscles and obstruct blood flow. This will cause blood clots in the legs and fluid might be retained in the feet.

Besides the medical reason, hormonal factor and bad condition, certain drugs may also cause foott, ankle and leg edema. Find out about these drugs with side effects of leg edema in this article, Peripheral Edema – Part 3.